Typhoid fever is an infectious disease that is caused by a species of bacteria called Salmonella typhi. It infects the intestinal tract and can sometimes spread into the bloodstream. Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection that can be life-threatening. Most cases of typhoid fever occur in developing nations. However, the disease can occur anywhere.
Contaminated food and water or close contact with an infected person cause typhoid fever.
Signs And Symptoms Of Typhoid Fever
In early stages of the disease, symptoms include: abdominal pain, fever, and a general feeling of being unwell. These initial symptoms are similar to other illnesses.
As typhoid fever gets worse, symptoms often include:High fever of up to 104 degrees Fahrenheit, Headaches, Abdominal pain, constipation then perhaps diarrhea later. Small, red spots on your abdomen or chest (rose-colored spots), Loss of appetite and weakness.
Other symptoms of typhoid fever include: Body aches, Bloody stools,Chills, Severe fatigue, Difficulty paying attention, Agitation, confusion, and hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that are not real)
Causes Of Typhoid Fever
Typhoid fever is caused by dangerous bacteria called Salmonella typhi.
Fecal-oral Transmission Route
This means that Salmonella typhi is passed in the feces and sometimes in the urine of infected people. If you eat food that has been handled by someone who has typhoid fever and who hasn’t washed carefully after using the toilet, you can become infected.
Even after antibiotic treatment, a small number of people who recover from typhoid fever continue to harbor the bacteria. These people, known as chronic carriers, no longer have signs or symptoms of the disease themselves. However, they still shed the bacteria in their feces and are capable of infecting others.
- Work in or travel to areas where typhoid fever is established.
- Work as a clinical microbiologist handling Salmonella typhi bacteria
- Have close contact with someone who is infected or has recently been infected with typhoid fever
- Drink water polluted by sewage that contains Salmonella typhi.
Treatment Of Typhoid Fever
Typhoid fever requires antibiotics to kill off S. typhi bacteria. When caught early, it usually clears up with a 10- to 14-day. Trusted Source course of antibiotics, often ciprofloxacin or cefixime. More severe cases may require intravenous antibiotics that are administered in a hospital.
While there, you might also be given corticosteroids and intravenous fluids. It’s very important to seek treatment if you have typhoid fever or think you might have it. Without treatment, one in five people with typhoid fever may die from complications.
Prevention Of Typhoid Fever
You can reduce your risk of getting typhoid fever by getting vaccinated. If you plan on traveling to any high-risk areas, plan on getting the typhoid fever vaccine beforehand. There are two types of typhoid fever vaccines:
1. an injected vaccine administered one week before travel
2. an oral vaccine administered in four capsules that are taken every other day.
When it comes to food, follow these tips:
- Eat foods that are completely cooked and served warm.
- Avoid unpasteurized dairy products.
- Avoid raw, undercooked, or room-temperature food that’s been cooked.
- Wash and peel fruits and vegetables.
- Drink water from a sealed bottle or boil your water.
- Don’t put ice in your drinks.
Other tips for prevention include:
- Wash your hand often, especially after using the bathroom and before eating.
- Avoid touching your mouth or nose.Carry hand sanitizer with you at all times in case soap and water aren’t available.
- Avoid close contact with people who have symptoms of typhoid fever.
- Avoid infecting others if you’re feeling sick.
Finally, if you do end up getting typhoid fever, follow these steps to avoid spreading it to others:
- Take the antibiotics as prescribed by your doctor.
- Be sure to finish the entire course of antibiotics, even if you begin to feel better.
- Avoid handling food until your doctor says that you’re no longer shedding S. typhi bacteria.
- Wash your hands often, especially after using the bathroom and before cooking or handling things that belong to others.
Complications Of Typhoid Fever
- kidney failure
- intestinal hemorrhage (severe bleeding).
- Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis)
- Inflammation of the lining of the heart and valves (endocarditis)
- Infection of major blood vessels (mycotic aneurysm)
- Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
- Infection and inflammation of the membranes and fluid surrounding your brain and spinal cord (meningitis)
- Psychiatric problems, such as delirium, hallucinations and paranoid psychosis.
Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection which is caused by the salmonella typhi bacteria. It has a wide range of signs and symptoms which the common ones are fever and abdominal pains. It is fatal and needs treatment. Good Personal and food hygiene can help one save himself from the bacteria and also vaccination is another form of prevention.
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